Also known as Ceasar Frederick,
he was the most unfortunate of all the travellers who visited
the Vijayanagara Empire because he visited it in the year
1567, 2 years after it was brought down to ruins. This traveller
from Venice, Italy travelled in the East from 1563 to 1581
and left behind an account of social, economic and cultural
life if people in India during that period.
In his own words, the ruins
of Vijayanagara were described as:
"The Citie of BEZENEGER
(Vijayanagara) is not altogether destroyed, yet the houses
stand still, but emptie, and there is dwelling in them nothing,
as is reported, but Tygres and other wild beasts."
He also was the unfortunate
witness of the beginning of downfall of Portuguese trade in
India which was mainly dependant on its links with Vijayanagara.
He states "The Merchandise that went every year from
Goa to Bezeneger (Vijayanagara) were Arabian Horses, Velvets,
Damaskes, and Sattens, Armesine of Portugal, and pieces of
China, Saffron, and Scarletts; and from Bezeneger they had
in Turkie for their commodities, Jewels and Pagodas (Gold
coins of Vijayanagara), which be Ducats of Gold; the Apparel
that they use in Bezeneger is Velvet, Satten, Damaske, Scarlet,
or white Bumbast cloth, according to the estate of the person,
with long Hats on their heads called Colae (Kulayi - a small
hand stitched cap worn by children in some parts even today)".